Print Friendly Celiac disease is a serious autoimmune disorder that can occur in genetically predisposed people where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. It is estimated to affect 1 in people worldwide. Two and one-half million Americans are undiagnosed and are at risk for long-term health complications. When people with celiac disease eat gluten a protein found in wheat, rye and barleytheir body mounts an immune response that attacks the small intestine.
Concepts[ edit ] In many cases, terms such as disease, disorder, morbidity, sickness and illness are used interchangeably. Disease The term disease broadly refers to any condition that impairs the normal functioning of the body. For this reason, diseases are associated with dysfunctioning of the body's normal homeostatic processes.
An infection or colonization that does not and will not produce clinically evident impairment of normal functioning, such as the presence of the normal bacteria and yeasts in the gutor of a passenger virusis not considered a disease.
By contrast, an infection that is asymptomatic during its incubation periodbut expected to produce symptoms later, is usually considered a disease.
Non-infectious diseases are all other diseases, including most forms of cancerheart diseaseand genetic disease.
Acquired disease An acquired disease is one that began at some point during one's lifetime, as opposed to disease that was already present at birth, which is congenital disease.
Acquired sounds like it could mean "caught via contagion", but it simply means acquired sometime after birth. It also sounds like it could imply secondary disease, but acquired disease can be primary disease.
Disease p disease An acute disease is one of a short-term nature acute ; the term sometimes also connotes a fulminant nature Chronic condition or chronic Disease p A chronic disease is one that persists over time, often characterized six months or more.
Congenital disorder or congenital disease A congenital disorder is one that is present at birth. It is often a genetic disease or disorder and can be inherited.
Genetic disease A genetic disorder or disease is caused by one or more genetic mutations. It is often inherited, but some mutations are random and de novo.
Hereditary or inherited disease A hereditary disease is a type of genetic disease caused by genetic mutations that are hereditary and can run in families Iatrogenic disease An iatrogenic disease or condition is one that caused by medical intervention, whether as a side effect of a treatment or as an inadvertent outcome.
Idiopathic disease An idiopathic disease has an unknown cause or source.
As medical science has advanced, many diseases with entirely unknown causes have had some aspects of their sources explained and therefore shed their idiopathic status. For example, when germs were discovered, it became known that they were a cause of infection, but particular germs and diseases had not been linked.
In another example, it is known that autoimmunity is the cause of some forms of diabetes mellitus type 1even though the particular molecular pathways by which it works are not yet understood.
It is also common to know certain factors are associated with certain diseases. However, association and causality are two very different phenomena, as a third cause might be producing the disease, as well as an associated phenomenon.
Incurable disease A disease that cannot be cured. Incurable diseases are not necessarily terminal diseasesand sometimes a disease's symptoms can be treated sufficiently for the disease to have little or no impact on quality of life. Primary disease A primary disease is a disease that is due to a root cause of illness, as opposed to secondary disease, which is a sequelaor complication that is caused by the primary disease.
For example, a common cold is a primary disease, where rhinitis is a possible secondary disease, or sequela. A doctor must determine what primary disease, a cold or a bacterial infection, is causing a patient's secondary rhinitis when deciding whether or not to prescribe antibiotics.
Secondary disease A secondary disease is a disease that is a sequela or complication of a prior, causal disease, which is referred to as the primary disease or simply the underlying cause root cause. For example, a bacterial infection can be primary, wherein a healthy person is exposed to a bacteria and becomes infected, or it can be secondary to a primary cause, that predisposes the body to infection.
For example, a primary viral infection that weakens the immune system could lead to a secondary bacterial infection. Similarly, a primary burn that creates an open wound could provide an entry point for bacteria, and lead to a secondary bacterial infection.
Terminal disease A terminal disease is one that is expected to have the inevitable result of death. Previously, AIDS was a terminal disease; it is now incurable, but can be managed indefinitely using medications.
Illness The terms Illness and sickness are both generally used as a synonym for disease. Symptoms of illness are often not directly the result of infection, but a collection of evolved responses — sickness behavior by the body—that helps clear infection and promote recovery.
Such aspects of illness can include lethargydepressionloss of appetitesleepinesshyperalgesiaand inability to concentrate. Medical disorders can be categorized into mental disordersphysical disordersgenetic disordersemotional and behavioral disordersand functional disorders. The term disorder is often considered more value-neutral and less stigmatizing than the terms disease or illness, and therefore is a preferred terminology in some circumstances.Health topics starting with P: alphabetical listing of diseases, illnesses, health conditions and wellness issues.
Browse A-Z Browse the GARD list of rare diseases and related terms to find topics of interest to you. This list includes the main name for each condition, as well as alternate names.
Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand.
Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement. A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of part or all of an organism, and that is not due to any external injury.
Diseases are often construed as medical conditions that are associated with specific symptoms and signs. This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "P".
In children, the disease sometimes follows a viral infection. In adults, it is more often a long-term (chronic) disease and can occur after a viral infection, with use of certain drugs, during pregnancy, or as part of an immune disorder.